Soul Serenade: The Soul Children, “The Sweeter He Is”

The Soul ChildrenWe’ve heard about one-hit wonders and even no-hit wonders but what about groups that had multiple hits and still manage to be forgotten when people talk about classic soul? The Soul Children recorded for Stax Records at the height of the label’s popularity, they had three Top 10 pop hits, and they were mentored by the legendary songwriting/producing team of Isaac Hayes and David Porter. And yet they’re often not even part of the discussion of the glory days at Stax.

Hayes and Porter put the Soul Children together in 1968. The lineup included two women and two men and the intention was that the group would take up the slack left at Stax when Sam & Dave had to return to Atlantic Records after the infamous contract dispute between the two labels. The original Soul Children lineup included Norman West, John Colbert (a.k.a. J. Blackfoot), Anita Louis, and Shelbra Bennett. Colbert already had a career that included some solo singles as well as a stint as the lead singer for the Bar-Kays when they reorganized after the plane crash that killed four members of the group as well as Otis Redding. Louis sang backup on some Hayes/Porter productions, Bennett was a singer signed to Stax, and West had replaced William Bell in the Del-Rios but hadn’t found any success as a solo act after that.

“Give ‘Em Love,” a Hayes/Porter production, naturally, was the debut Soul Children single in 1968. The single’s Top 40 success on the R&B chart pointed to even more success ahead. That promise was realized when the group’s second single, “I’ll Understand,” did even better, reaching the #29 spot on the R&B chart. Still, pop success was proving to be elusive until the Soul Children released their fourth single, “The Sweeter He Is.” The two-part single was a Top 10 hit on the R&B chart and the group finally found some pop success when the record managed a #52 showing on the pop chart. As was the case with nearly all of the Stax Records of the day, the backing musicians on the Soul Children records included luminaries like Steve Cropper, Al Jackson, Jr, Duck Dunn, and Hayes himself.

The Soul Children

The Soul ChildrenThe group only had a minor hit when they tried their luck with a slowed down version of the Sam & Dave smash “Hold On I’m Coming.” The single managed to crawl into the R&B Top 50 but did not cross over to the pop chart. The fate of the Soul Children seemed to be sealed when Hayes stopped working with them in order to focus on his solo career. They didn’t give up, however. They recorded a couple of albums including one at Muscle Shoals and released several unsuccessful singles. Then, in 1972, the Soul Children made their comeback with “Hearsay,” a song written by West and Colbert that turned out to be their biggest hit to date reaching #5 on the R&B chart and #44 on the pop chart.

The Soul Children appeared at the legendary Wattstax concert in Los Angeles in 1972. After a few less successful singles, the group returned to the upper reaches of the charts in 1974. “I’ll Be Your Other Woman” turned out to be their biggest hit, reaching #3 on the R&B chart and #36 on the pop chart.

Storm clouds were hanging over Stax when the Soul Children left the label in 1975. At the same time Bennett, who had sung lead on “I’ll Be Your Other Woman,” changed her name to Shelbra Deane and left the group for a solo career. The remaining trio signed to Epic Records in 1976. They had some success with singles for the label notably the #19 R&B hit “Can’t Give Up a Good Thing” in 1978. During their time at Epic, the Soul Children reunited with Porter who produced an album called Where Is Your Woman Tonight? in 1977. When Stax was resurrected by Fantasy Records in the late 1970s, Porter brought the group back home. Unfortunately, the one album that the group recorded for the newly reconstituted label, Open Door Policy, was not successful and they decided to call it a day in 1979.

The Soul Children put 15 singles into the R&B charts and five on them into the pop chart. When the subject of classic soul comes up they have earned a place in the discussion.

Soul Serenade: Danny White, “Can’t Do Nothing Without You”

Danny WhiteFor every musician who becomes a household name, there are hundreds, probably even thousands who toil in clubs for many years, getting a whiff of success every now and then but never quite climbing that ladder to the top rung. At some point they must realize that they are never going to get there and yet, they toil on, maybe because they love music or maybe because it’s the only thing they know.

Danny White was born and raised in New Orleans. After serving in the Army in California he returned to the Crescent City and began his music career with a band called the Cavaliers who played at clubs like the Golden Cadillac and the Sho Bar. It was there that White was spotted by the legendary Huey “Piano” Smith who helped White get a deal with Ace Records. White recorded several singles for the label but none of them got much attention. During this time White also made a quickly forgotten single for Dot Records.

White didn’t give up, however, and before long he met a woman named Connie LaRocca who had started a label called Frisco. LaRocca’s A&R man was Al Reed and Reed had written a song called “Kiss Tomorrow Goodbye.” White went into the studio with another legendary New Orleans musician, producer Wardell Quezergue, to record Reed’s song. The resulting single was a hit throughout the Gulf Coast and even though White tried hard to replicate the success of the single with tracks like “Loan Me a Handkerchief” and “Love is a Way of Life” he never seemed to be able to match that first Frisco single.

Danny White - "Can't Do Nothing Without You"At that point, looking for something to spur White’s career, LaRocca thought that the answer might be found in Memphis. It was there that White hooked up with the dynamic production team of Isaac Hayes and David Porter to record a gem of a ballad called “Can’t Do Nothing Without You.” Sadly, the single didn’t score and neither did a follow-up called “Note on the Table.” When Frisco shut down, White stayed in Memphis and signed with Stax so that he could continue to work with Hayes and Porter. The team recorded another powerful single, “Keep My Woman Home” b/w “I’m Dedicating My Life.” Among the backing musicians was guitarist Steve Cropper but large scale success continued to be elusive.

White’s moved on to record with producer Bowlegs Miller and their collaborations featured the Hi Records rhythm section as well as the Memphis Horns. Singles from that period included “Cracked Up Over You,” Don Bryant’s “You Can’t Keep A Good Man Down,” and “Taking Inventory,” which was written by Eddie Floyd.

The provenance of the next White recordings remains unclear. The productions are credited to the New Orleans team of Marshall Seahorn and Allen Toussaint but it’s quite possible that tracks like “Natural Soul Brother” and “One Way Love Affair” were leftovers from the Bowlegs Miller sessions since the sound of those records is quite similar.

Despite the renown of the producers that White worked with and the quality of those recordings, White never quite managed to break through. He finished his recording career with a single for Kashe Records, “King For a Day,” b/w “Never Like This.” White was done as a performer by the end of the 1960s although he stayed in the game by becoming the manager of the Meters at the start of their career. But by the early 1970s, White quit the music business altogether and moved to Washington, D.C. He died in 1996 and although he never became a household name many of his recordings are treasured by soul music aficionados.

Soul Serenade: The Holy Trinity of Soul (Isaac Hayes Vinyl Reissues)

Isaac Hayes - Black MosesIsaac Hayes began his career as a session musician. He was called on to sub for Booker T. Jones when Jones was at school, studying for his music degree at Indiana University. There were occasions, however, when both keyboard players appeared on the same record. Obviously, Hayes’ talent as a keyboard player was acknowledged by Stax management but I wonder if anyone knew at the time that one day he would be the savior, at least temporarily, of the company that he was playing occasional piano for.
For Hayes, there was a step in between his role as a session keyboard player and his ascent to the heights as a solo star. Before he made his own records he wrote hit songs for other artists, notably Sam & Dave. Teaming with David Porter, the pair penned smashes like “You Don’t Know Like I Know,” “Soul Man,” “When Something Is Wrong with My Baby,” and “Hold On, I’m Comin’.” Hayes and Porter also produced records by Sam & Dave, Carla Thomas, and other Stax artists.

By 1969, Otis Redding, the biggest star on the Stax roster, had been killed in a plane crash. Shortly after that, the label lost all of its master recordings when Atlantic was sold to Warner Bros.-Seven Arts and the distribution contract between Stax and Atlantic was terminated. According to the terms of that contract, if that contract was terminated the Stax master recordings would belong to Atlantic, now part of Warner Bros. Stax was left with nothing to sell and needed fresh product immediately.

Isaac Hayes - Hot Buttered Soul

Al Bell was an executive vice president at Stax at the time but in reality, he was running the show by then. He issued a call for a mind-boggling 27 new albums to be released by the label in 1969. The most successful of these new albums was Hot Buttered Soul, the second solo album (the first one hadn’t gotten much attention) by Isaac Hayes. Hot Buttered Soul featured a stunning cover photo and extended versions of songs like Burt Bacharach and Hal David’s “Walk on By” (12:03) and Jimmy Webb’s “By the Time I Get to Phoenix” (18:42). The album topped the R&B chart and rose to #8 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Hayes’ success continued with subsequent album releases The Isaac Hayes Movement (#1 R&B, #1 Jazz, #8 pop) and …To Be Continued (#1 R&B, #1 Jazz, #11 pop). In 1971 Hayes wrote music for the blaxploitation film Shaft. If anything, his wah-wah (played by the late Skip Pitts) driven title song surpassed the film itself in terms of success. The single was #1 for two weeks on the Billboard pop chart. The other two vocal tracks on the album, “Soulsville” and “Do Your Thing” also became hit singles. “Theme from Shaft” won Hayes an Oscar for Best Original Song. He was also nominated by the Academy that year for Best Original Dramatic Score.

Hayes wasn’t done by a long shot, however. Later in 1971, he released a double album called Black Moses. The big hit single from that album was the Hayes take on the Jackson 5’s “Never Can Say Goodbye.” The album also included unique Hayes versions of Bacharach-David songs “(They Long to Be) Close to You” which had been a hit for the Carpenters, and “I’ll Never Fall in Love Again,” originally a hit for Dionne Warwick. The Friends of Distinction (“Going in Circles”) and Johnny Taylor (“Part Time Love”) were also covered. Hayes considered Black Moses to be his most personal album.

The three Hayes albums, Hot Buttered Soul, Shaft, and Black Moses, became known in some quarters as the “Holy Trinity of Soul.” It has been a long time since any of the three have been available on vinyl. A few weeks ago Craft Recordings released remastered (from the original analog tapes) versions of all three of the classic albums on 180-gram vinyl. The producers have faithfully reproduced the covers and all of the original artwork for the albums and the Black Moses album even includes the cross-shaped fold out that became legendary.

Purchase links:

Hot Buttered Soul

Shaft

Black Moses

The videos below feature remastering engineer Dave Cooley discussing his work on the project and Isaac Hayes III and Cooley discussing the legacy of Isaac Hayes.

Soul Serenade: Carla Thomas, “B-A-B-Y”

Stax ClassicsCarla Thomas was the first star in the Stax Records galaxy. I’ve written about her before, so today just a little about her hit single “B-A-B-Y.” The song was written by Isaac Hayes and David Porter and released on the label in August 1966. The record ran up the R&B chart to #3 and had Pop success at #14. “B-A-B-Y” was the leadoff track on Thomas’ album Carla, itself a #7 R&B hit.

While it’s appropriate to begin the column with the first Stax artist to make an impact on the charts, the real focus this week is on the label’s 60th anniversary and a new set of budget-friendly compilations from Rhino Entertainment highlighting the work of a number of Stax stars. In addition to Thomas, there are new compilations for Otis Redding, Sam & Dave, and Booker T & the MGs.

In addition to “B-A-B-Y”, the Thomas collection includes hits like “I Like What You’re Doing (To Me),” “Cause I Love You,” and “Tramp,” her 1966 smash with Redding. The Redding collection includes classics like “Try a Little Tenderness,” “I’ve Been Loving You Too Long (To Stop Now),” “Respect,” and his posthumous smash “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay.”

“Hold On! I’m a Comin’,” “You Don’t Know Like I Know,” and the #1 1967 smash “Soul Man” are included on the Sam & Dave compilation, and the Booker T and the MGs disc offers up “Hip Hug-Her,” “Time is Tight,” and the #1 hit “Green Onions” among other classics.

The best news of all is that each of these Stax Classics, as the series is known, can be had for less than seven dollars at Amazon, and you can download the MP3s for less than $10. And the release of these collections is hardly the end of the 60th-anniversary celebration. On June 23 there will be 180-gram vinyl releases that include the Booker T album Green Onions, Rufus Thomas’ Walking the Dog, Soul Men by Sam & Dave, the Otis Redding – Carla Thomas classic King & Queen.

There will be additional vinyl reissues from Redding, Thomas, Sam & Dave, Booker T and the Megs, and Albert King on July 7.

Stax Records: A Short History

As 1968 began, things at Stax Records were uncertain to say the least. The label had been born in 1957 as Satellite Records, the brainchild of founder Jim Stewart, who was joined a year later by his sister Estelle Axton. Initially Satellite artists recorded in Stewart’s garage in Memphis. The records were mostly country, rockabilly, or pop because that’s what Stewart liked.

In 1959, Satellite Records moved to Brunswick, Tennessee, and Stewart was introduced to Chips Moman, who in turn introduced Stewart to the world of Rhythm & Blues. Before long, Satellite had it’s first R&B release, the Veltones “Fool in Love.” The record was picked up for national distribution by Mercury Records, but Satellite remained primarily in the country and pop music business.

Moman convinced Stewart to move the company back to Memphis. There Stewart found the former Capitol Theater at 926 East McLemore Avenue and moved his company into it lock, stock, and barrel. The first artists to record there were Rufus Thomas and his daughter Carla. Their record, “Cause I Love You,” became a hit and was picked up for national distribution by Atlantic Records.

That was the beginning of a distribution deal between Satellite and Atlantic that gave the New York company distribution rights to all of Satellite’s releases. Maybe it was the Rufus & Carla hit, maybe it was the move back to South Memphis, or maybe it was the influence of Atlantic Records, but from that point on, Satellite (and later Stax and Volt) became a label known for R&B and southern soul music.

In 1961, Carla Thomas released “Gee Whiz” on Satellite. It was clear that the record was going to be a hit, so Atlantic reissued it on their own label, and it became a national smash. Thomas would continue to record at the Satellite facility in Memphis, but her records were released on Atlantic from that point on.

In that same year, the Royal Spades showed up at Satellite. They changed their named to the Mar-Keys, and released a single called “Last Night” that raced to the #3 spot on the pop chart. It was the first single that Satellite distributed nationally, without help from Atlantic or any other label. That’s when another company called Satellite Records found out about the Memphis label, and insisted that Stewart and Axton change the name of their company. In September, 1961 they did, combining the first two letters of each of their last names to form Stax Records.

Beginning in ’62, Stax became a juggernaut, recording hit after hit in the old movie theater. A house band that included guitarist and Stax A&R director Steve Cropper, bassist Lewie Steinberg, drummer Curtis Green, horn players Floyd Newman, Gene ‘Bowlegs’ Miller, and Gilbert Caple, joined later by keyboard player Booker T. Jones and bass player Donald ‘Duck’ Dunn, played on most of the early Stax hits.

Many local musicians wanted to be part of the action at Stax. Among them was Isaac Hayes, and he auditioned for a gig there in 1962. Unfortunately he didn’t get the job. Two years later however he was firmly ensconced with the Stax house band, along with his songwriting partner David Porter. Cropper, Dunn, Jones, Hayes, Porter, and drummer Al Jackson, Jr. became known as the Big Six, and between them they produced nearly everything that came out of Stax through 1969.

Otis Redding

Otis Redding released his first Stax single in 1962. “These Arms of Mine” turned into a big hit for Redding, and it was the beginning of his legendary career at the label. Although the label featured many other hit makers, it was Redding who became the rock on which the label’s success was built.

In 1965 Stewart signed a formal distribution deal with Atlantic, but in one of the great tragedies in music business history, he failed to read it first. It didn’t matter in the beginning. The two labels collaborated on a huge number of hits over the next few years, including records by Redding, Carla Thomas, Sam & Dave, Booker T. & the MGs, Eddie Floyd, the Bar-Kays, and Albert King. Atlantic sent Wilson Pickett and Don Covay down to record at Stax, and released those records on their own label. It seemed like everything that Stax touched was gold in those days.

Then things changed. In 1967, Atlantic Records was sold to Warner Brothers – Seven Arts. Stewart hoped that his label would be part of the sale, but received what he deemed an insulting offer for his company. One thing that Stewart had insisted on in his deal with Atlantic was a “key man clause.” The key man designated at Atlantic was Jerry Wexler and the clause said that if Wexler left Atlantic, or his stock in the company was sold, the deal between Stax and Atlantic could be renegotiated, or terminated.

Stewart wanted the Stax masters back from Atlantic but then he got a letter from Atlantic’s lawyers informed him that according the the 1965 agreement that Stewart hadn’t read, Atlantic had all rights to the Stax recordings they had distributed between 1960-1967. To this day those recordings are still owned by Atlantic’s parent company. Stewart terminated the deal with Atlantic. Suddenly, shockingly, Stax was without a catalog. Stewart had been royally screwed. He always blamed Wexler for the betrayal, and it was a dirty deal, but he should have taken the time to read the contract. Such dirty deals have been the sine qua non of the record business from its beginnings.

As if that blow wasn’t strong enough, Stax was about to take a hit from which it almost didn’t recover. On December 10, 1967, Otis Redding’s plane went down in Wisconsin, killing him and all but two members of the Bar-Kays. A few months later Dr. Martin Luther King was murdered at the Lorraine Motel, a place where Stax staffers often met. It all proved too much for Stewart, who became less active in his company, ceding a lot of his responsibilities to Al Bell, who became a co-owner of Stax. Bell and Estelle Axton didn’t see eye to eye on a lot of things however, and eventually Stewart was forced to choose between Bell and his sister. He chose Bell, and asked Axton to leave the company.

Bell shepherded a recovery that surprised a lot of people in the music business. Since the company no longer had a catalog, Bell initiated a program to release as many albums as possible in as short a time as possible. The company released an astonishing 27 albums and 30 singles in mid-1969 alone.

Isaac Hayes

The album that stood out in the surge of activity at Stax was Isaac Hayes’ Hot Buttered Soul, which sold three million copies. Hayes’ first solo album hadn’t been successful, and if not for the fact that Bell was determined to rebuild the Stax catalog quickly, Hayes might not have had another chance as a solo artist. He demanded complete creative control, and Bell gave it to him.

Hot Buttered Soul only has four songs, but two of them, covers of Jimmy Webb’s “By the Time I Get to Phoenix,” and Burt Bacharach and Hal David’s “Walk On By,” clock in at over 12 minutes. The album was recorded at Ardent Studios (when the Stax facility was overbooked, as it must have been during the surge of recording, Stax artists were sent to Ardent) in Memphis, and at Tera Shirma Studios in Detroit. It was released on September 23, 1969 on the Stax imprint Enterprise.

The album version of “Walk On By” was over 12 minutes long. In order to make it palatable as as single, and get the single some airplay, the record was edited down to less than five minutes. While the single was not as successful as the album that spawned it, “Walk On By” did manage to make it to #30 on the pop chart.

By 1971 Stax was well on its way to become the diversified music company that Bell envisioned. But while there were a number of hits during this period, it merely forestalled the inevitable. Financial impropriety, music business excess, and a bad distribution deal with CBS had the company teetering by 1975. On December 19 of that year the company declared bankruptcy, and a few weeks later a judge ordered the company’s doors closed. Bell was eventually indicted for bank fraud, but he was acquitted.

The Stax name and assets have been sold several times since then. Fantasy Records controlled the company for many years before being purchased by the Concord Music Group in 2004. In 2006 Concord announced that the Stax label would be reactivated for the release of new music. Among Concord’s first signings was Isaac Hayes.

Ken Shane is the New Music Editor at Popdose

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